Wednesday, February 29, 2012

Music in Ancient Greece

When we refer to the music of Ancient Greece we mainly study it from the 8th century B.C., since before that the data that currently exists is limited. Music for the ancient Greeks had divine origins, as did many aspects of their lives, hence we have the birth of the nine Muses, daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne. According to Hesiod, they were born in Pieria, however they lived on Mount Olympus in order to entertain the Gods during their symposiums. Their leader was Apollo, i.e. the God of light, prophecy, music and poetry. Nevertheless, despite living with the Gods they often secretly visited mortals in order to inspire them. 



It is unfortunate that only a few musical passages have been saved to this day, however it is believed that Byzantine Music, i.e. the ecclesiastical music of the Eastern Orthodox Church, is the continuation of the ancient Greek music. The importance of its existence, however, is immense since it did not only affect Greek culture but also the whole musical philosophy and culture of Europe and the Middle East. From various sources we learn that in ancient Greece, music exalted to the level of a free and independent art form. Plato, Aristotle and other philosophers analysed the aesthetics and psychological aspects of music forming the ethical side of music, which deals with the effect that music has on the mental and emotional realm of man.   

Tuesday, February 28, 2012

Smoking

Smoking has been in our daily life for a long time, however it is only until recently that various governments have began battling against this bad habit. Medical treatment is now available to deal with the smoking frenzy, nevertheless advertisement plays a key role in this "conflict" not only with the smokers but also with the whole smoking industry. It is contested whether these ads are actually achieving their goal, nonetheless they should be encouraged in order to promote public health. 







Monday, February 27, 2012

Palestinian Speech

I am not sure if the following event actually took place, however it is an interesting story, which many will understand, since the issue between Israel and Palestine is an ongoing world problem. The following incident was widely spread through the internet and via emails, the latter being the way Londinoupolis was informed of it.  


The Palestinian Representative's Speech at the UN. 
'Before beginning my talk I want to tell you something about Moses. When he struck the rock and it brought forth water, he thought, "What a good opportunity to have a bath"! He removed his clothes, put them aside on the rock and entered the water. When he got out and wanted to dress, his clothes had vanished. An Israeli had stolen them'. 
The Israeli representative jumped up furiously and shouted, 'What are you talking about? The Israelis were not there then'. 
The Palestinian representative smiled and said: ' And now that we have made that clear, I will begin my speech'. 

Sunday, February 26, 2012

Moving painting

The following painting, created by Rebecca Baumann, is not a magical painting, however, in many respects, it is a unique piece of art. It is a rectangular device that changes every couple of seconds. The Australian artist used flip clocks, replacing the numbers with coloured paper, maintaining an asychronous rotation of movement.


Friday, February 24, 2012

Energy production pavement

A new and innovative idea has occurred recently where by energy will be produced by Pavegen Systems, which will be a reality in the coming Olympic Games in London. Laurence-Kembell Cook, who invented this new idea, has proposed to place special pavement plaques on certain busy pedestrian streets which will absorb the energy produced by passers by and transform it to energy for powering. 


The current proposal has found a way of saving energy, especially for times when the pavements will have no movement. The special energy saving plaques are made of recyclable material and stainless steel, being able to resist any weather and pressure. 

Thursday, February 23, 2012

How do you know your addicted to the internet?

Our lives have altered forever due to the expansion of internet usage that we currently have. Computers, internet, notepads, i-pads are a usual and familiar spectacle everywhere we go. However, could we live our lives without them. This is were the question "how do you know your addicted to the internet", comes to the forefront and makes us think twice of our addiction.



Some paradigms of how bad our addiction can get follow:
- After a full stop you write .com
-You introduce yourself by giving your email.
-You move house and the first thing you install is the internet.
-You go on holiday and choose a hotel according to whether it has WiFi.
-You use words like, lol, brb..when speaking and writing essays
- You go out and you check your emails and Facebook status.

Wednesday, February 22, 2012

St. Theodora in Vasta, Peloponnese

The church of St. Theodora is located just outside the village of Vasta of Megalopolis in the Peloponnese, in Southern Greece. It was built between the 10th and 12th centuries and according to tradition, the construction of the church is intimately linked with the martyrdom of Theodora. 



The unique factor of this small church is that it supports 17 large trees that emerge from the roof and the walls of the chapel. Each tree weighs close to a tonne and stands over 20 metres high. An amazing detail is that for hundreds of years the roots have not been visible. Locals and researchers cannot identify the cause of this phenomenon, using even X rays. 



In 2003, a geographical report was presented at the Fourth Symposium of Archaeometry in Greece. The results of this investigation proved that the roots followed the gaps existing inside the stone wall of the chapel, creating repulsion stresses between the stones and finally reaching the ground.
The entire buildings is under considerable pressure due to the large load of the trees and it is a miracle that after hundreds of years, the church survives with no damage to its structure. Thankfully a spring comes out from underneath St. Theodora and irrigates the trees. 



I would like to thank my uncle, Dimitri Theodorou, for the wonderful pictures he took, when he visited this unique and magical church and for giving them to me in order to post them here on Londinoupolis.

Tuesday, February 21, 2012

Climate change in the last 131 years

Climate change has been in the forfront of world news in countless circumstances, due to the visible changes and worsening of natural events. This factor is ampliphied, when comparing it to a previous era, as NASA lately did, i.e. between 1880 and 2011. Within this period, nine out of the ten warmest years were between 2000 and 2011. It is evident that our planet is currently absorbing more energy than it emits, hence creating a serious problem, which mankind will have to solve rapidly and succesfully.



Despite the governments not coming to a unanimous consensus, mankind will have to solve this serious matter, disregarding the economic costs, or else a catastrophic and uneasy future will be a reality. 

Sunday, February 19, 2012

Wear your seatbelt!

Annually, hundreds of people worldwide are killed due to the fact that they do not wear their seatbelt, a minor "sacrifice" we have to make in order to stay safe and ultimately alive. This commercial emphasises this point exactly!

Saturday, February 18, 2012

Paintings inside a bottle

Art is found everywhere, however the more "bizarre" art is the better, according to many people. Also the difficulty factor contributes towards the awe one has for a work of art. The painting inside a bottles is intriguing, where pictures and calligraphy is painted on the inside surface of the glass. The fantastic paradigms here are merely an inch or two high and are painted while manipulating the brush through the neck of the bottle, painted in reverse.    



Friday, February 17, 2012

The Greek and Roman Galleries, Metropolitan Museum

The Greek and Roman Galleries, recently renovated, present a chronological history of the development of Classical art from its earliest beginnings in prehistoric Greece to the time when the Roman Empire was transformed by the espousal of Christianity. 




The galleries demonstrate the interconnections between these great civilizations, peoples and places as well as their lasting influence on western civilization. 




This grand vaulted gallery displays monumental Greek art of the 6th, 5th and 4th centuries B.C. 




The central area of the gallery feature large scale marble copies made during the Roman period (first century B.C. - third century A.D.) of Greek bronze statues created in the fifth and fourth centuries B.C. Also here one can find paradigms of original marble funerary monuments and vases of the sixth century B.C. The chronological division is maintained within the galleries. 

Thursday, February 16, 2012

Boredom affects our health

One in four employees is believed to be chronically bored, affecting the quality of work he/she produces, but also their physical and mental health, according to a new research. British researchers asked 102 employees to answer a questionnaire in regards to how bored they are at work and what solutions they could come up with. 25% of the respondents replied that this phenomenon existed due to the lack of interest they had for their work, resulting in the consumption of chocolate and coffee during work and alcohol at the end of the day. 


80% of the people stated that boredom affects their concentration, whilst 50% blamed it for the various mistakes they made. However researchers from the University of Central Lancashire argue that the main cause of this phenomenon is the non demanding workload. 

Wednesday, February 15, 2012

The largest underground city in the world

The largest underground city in the world will be created in an abandoned diamond mine in the industrial area of  Eastern Siberia, Russia. The Eco-City, as it is called, will be built within a massive hole, with a diameter of one kilometre and depth of 550 meters. This project is based on the idea of creating a "Green" city, which will be fully protected against extreme weather conditions in Siberia; the existence of a large glass dome, that will cover the whole city, will contribute towards this objective. 



This new project is expected to attract thousands of people and according to various preliminary indications it will be able to accommodate more than 100.000 people. They will be divided into three main levels, which will include forests, homes, recreation areas and more. The city's source of energy will be the dome, with its solar cells that will feed power to the entire city. It will also be a tourist attraction for countless Russians and foreigners.  

Tuesday, February 14, 2012

Naxos' Old Town

Naxos' Old Town, also known as Chora, is one of the key attractions of the island, being also its capital. There the visitor can enjoy the unique beauty, found only in the Aegean Islands. The narrow alleys lead to the numerous churches located within the Old Town, the shops, the coffee shops, restaurants and finally the castle, located at the top of the city. 





The castle, built by the Venetians, still remains one of the biggest live parts of the history of the Chora, being a sample of medieval architecture. The Old Town hides countless secrets of the old Naxos. Within it one can find the Old Market, which together with the old style houses, the little shops and the small tavernas, the beauty and friendliness of the old town and its people is easily evident. 




Monday, February 13, 2012

Advertisements v Reality

Everyone has seen the food advertisements of various restaurant chains around the world, however reality is totally different to what is portrayed on the billboard or on t.v. Here are some examples of what is advertised and what is real. This is a fantastic example to take in consideration for other ads on numerous other products.  




Friday, February 10, 2012

Are human rights culturally specific?


Human rights are a universal, international phenomenon and concern. They are universally understood, leaving considerable space for national, regional, cultural particularity and other forms of diversity and relativity. It is true that Human rights are a global concern, especially between non-western states, due to the fact that they are seen as imperialistic and western ideals. So the main debate on this matter is between the Judaeo- Christian West and the Muslim world.

The Middle East and numerous Asian states have criticized the UN and Western policy for its imposition of Western values. They understand that the root and the philosophical foundations of the human rights are western, meaning in a way that they are opposite values to their own.  Nevertheless we cannot identify one answer, on this matter, which could represent all of the Islamic states. Some seem to be understandable, accepting a dialogue between human rights and Islam. Others are antagonistic towards this relation, understanding that the two are incompatible, since they derive from two different ‘worlds’.
               Although these values were born recently, after World War Two, and by certain states, meaning by certain cultures and ideologies, based on the philosophical, religious and political views of the life they represent; we can today distinguish the existence of human rights in other environments, such as the Islamic one, where we have the Universal Islamic Declaration of Human Rights which, enforced in 1981 and the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam, 1990. So we understand that even these states have recognized that these human values are above any cultural reference, or religious cultural authenticity; but they represent the security of the individual by the state, regardless of its ideological cover-up. Through these two declarations, Human Rights are brought closer to the traditions and political ideologies of the East and especially the Islamic culture.


            The important issue here is to understand the universalistic existence of Human Rights. They exist since the beginning of politics. There are different conceptions on this matter hence we acknowledge different attitudes towards human rights. What gave birth to them was the West but it was due to the social, economic and political transformation of modernity.  Virtually all states accept the authority of the Universal Declaration of Human Right; even though many of them violate these rights within their jurisdiction, such as China, which has kept the language of international recognized human rights, seemingly as an inescapable precondition to its fully recognition as a great power.
            The key point that should be considered when referring to human rights and how states and individuals accept them or not, is interpretation. Western religious and philosophical doctrines through most of their history have either rejected or ignored human rights. Today, however, the same institutions endorse them. This is a great example of how ideas and ideologies can adjust to the international political and cultural environment of the age. So ‘Asian values’ and ‘African values’ can modify themselves as did the western ones previously. And this is seen through examples like Japan, Taiwan and South Korea, who are modernizing their politics and aspirations, trying to incorporate them into the global political arena. There have been discussions in the international diplomatic field so human rights can work with the Islamic, African and Asian traditions. Difficulties have made this connection quite complicated. One issue is shari’a law which exists and forms many Muslim societies.
            Human rights have a universal value. Moreover, most people, of all cultures, accept some validity for universal criteria: very few people would argue that torture, starvation, slavery are to be treated at the same level as greeting customs and festival arrangements. Humanity is the important factor, not culture. 
            Concluding, we understand that the above presents us the difficulties of accepting the “Universal Declaration of Human Rights” by all the states, especially the non-western ones.  However movements of incorporating them in different cultural traditions have been made. Although they were born in the west, they refer to every human. Human rights are above any culture. They exist to protect every human, individually. As stated in the first article of “The International Bill of Human Rights, All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood”. 

Thursday, February 9, 2012

Knossos

Knossos is one of the most famous archaeological sites in Greece, once the capital of Minoan Crete, located near the current capital city of the largest Greek island, Heraklion. Knossos was inhabited for several thousand years, however it was abandoned after its destruction in 1375 BC, marking the end of Minoan civilization. 
The economic, social and political development of the settlement led to the construction of the Palace of Knossos, towards the end of the second millennium BC, being the seat of the legendary King Minos. The palace of Knossos was also associated with the mythological labyrinth. 




The palace was destroyed at about 1700 BC, probably by a large earthquake or foreign invaders. It was immediately rebuilt to an even grander complex and until its abandonment, it was damaged numerous times due to earthquakes, invasions and in 1450 BC by the colossal volcanic eruption of Thera (Santorini), which is believed to have brought a massive blow to the Minoan Civilisation, destroying it for ever. However the invasion of Mycenae was also a reason for the decrease of the Minoan civilization. 





The first large scale excavation was undertaken in 1878 by Minos Kalokairinos, a wealthy art lover, during the years of the Turkish occupation, excavating parts of the palace and many pithoi (storage pots). However it was Sir Arthur Evans in 1900-1931 who excavated not only the palace but also the entire surrounding area of Knossos. The palace complex was excavated in only 5 years. Evans restored the palace, which has been criticised as inaccurate; nevertheless he has given a feel of how the palace once was, during its glory days. 

Wednesday, February 8, 2012

Can Clausewitz's insights be applied to contemporary warfare?


Carl von Clausewitz is “the greatest theorist of strategy”.[1] Although living in Prussia in the 18th and 19th century he is still relevant and widely read even today. His work has been the bases not only for theorists and scholars but also for the military. “On War is treated like holy script from which quotations are plucked to legitimize all sorts of policies and programs”[2].  The analysis of war in his book demonstrates that On War is relevant, even today, because as Dr Gray explains “the objective nature of war is permanent”[3]; the means are the ones that change and evolve. In this essay key points will be analysed. How do Clausewitz’s views expressed in his book ‘On War’ still apply to contemporary warfare, is he still read today and also we will take in to account the critics, who do not believe in the unchanging values of his observations. Also examples will prove the significance of Clausewitz’s writings.
            Clausewitz in his book On War talks about war generally, giving the reader definitions around it. But even when he gives us examples, in book eight, he refers to the past and his present, the Napoleonic era. He refers to examples which are even used in the modern epoch, for example the Tartars, Rome, Alexander the Great, the Medieval Monarchs and many more. But why is this book important? The answer is simple. Wars were becoming more complicated and a theory of strategy, a base for this discourse was needed. This is why it is read today and will still be read in the future.


            Clausewitz writes in book 1, chapter 1 that “war is thus an act of force to compel our enemy to do our will”[4]. This definition, as explained by Kaldor, implies that he is referring to “war between states”[5], which is relevant to the 20th century, although this is changing in the 21st century due to the wars against terrorism, i.e. against terrorist groups and not other states. This leads as some believe “to the conclusion that the motivation and goals of these non-state actors no longer follow political or ideological imperatives but have other sources which may be ethnic, economic, or the fact that violence has become an autonomous force”[6].
In the modern epoch the armies are controlled by the state, which means that they are subject to the will of the state, the political aspect of governance. This confirms Clausewitz’s belief “that war is not merely an act of policy but a true political instrument, a continuation of political intercourse, carried on with other means”[7]. Even in the post 9/11 world we see that although the actors who engage in wars may be different from Clausewitz’s time, i.e. non-state actors such as Al-Qaeda, however the conflicts are still determined by politics, for example Hamas and Hezbollah. “Thus politics may not be controlled by the state as organizer and ‘policy-maker’, but that does not make wars any less political”[8], so the main actors in a conflict can be states or non-state actors.
            The way with which war was fought in his time, the “Napoleonic model”[9], was also identified in World War I. War and the way with which it was executed came close to Clausewitz’s view of absolute war, especially with the existence and use of nuclear weapons in World War II. Here we can refer to Clausewitz’s Trinitarian conception of war. Every modern author and analyst who examines ‘On War’ evaluates this theory which is present in every conflict, making it its ontological bases. War is compiled of three levels; first the political leaders (i.e. the government), second the military and third the people. We can identify here that these three levels “operate through reason, through chance and strategy and through emotion”[10]. This is the foundation of absolute war, which still exists in the modern era. Even though we have witnessed radical progress in technology, this important theory will continue to be applicable in future wars.
            Clausewitz’s relevance in the modern world and modern way of warfare is also recognized through the media and through books which both refer to ‘On War’ as the bases of their views and theories. The Prussian author is the main source scholars and reporters use when referring to matters of war. This is no coincidence. Clausewitz analysed war systematically clarifying all its aspects. As explained above, war has not changed, only the means with which it is fought. So Clausewitz’s theories are applicable and relevant today. Many articles concerning the Iraq invasion refer to Clausewitz and his theories. For example Lawrence Freedman explains; “‘War is the continuation of Politics by Other Means’. Yes. After more than 170 years, the thesis of Prussian military theorist Karl von Clausewitz still applies. War is violence with a purpose.”[11] The thing that has altered is whose purpose is being served and the nature of conflict. Importantly, the post 9/11 world refers to Clausewitz and his work. Thomas Ricks in his book Fiasco illustrates Ike Skelton giving advice to the White House by quoting Clausewitz stating that it is required in war “not to take the first step without considering the last”[12]. This is an important point since the Bush administration did not foresee the difficulties that would occur after invading Iraq. This is why politicians and the military should always have in mind that “no one starts a war- or rather, no one in his senses ought to do so- without first being clear in his mind what he intends to achieve by that war, and how he intends to conduct it”[13]. Here we are reminded of Clausewitz’s point in Book 1 when he refers to war as “a game of cards”[14]. War is chance, a gamble which should be the last resort due to the consequences, which could be disastrous.  One can identify the fact that the theory behind the actions taken in modern wars is based on past literature and especially Clausewitz’s On War. Many articles refer to this source to also explain the actions taken by the numerous states or other political actors, for example Jihad in the 21st century.
            The strong bonds between the military and governments, i.e. politics, can be detected when looking at examples from contemporary wars. An example is Kosovo where “the key to being able to sustain the campaign was not military resources or casualties but the ability to sustain political support in the face of the uncertainties and contingencies of war”[15]. Also Brodie believes that the condemning examination of the catastrophe of Vietnam is due to the absence of a feasible policy in that country.  
            Clausewitz and his theories have also been criticised by contemporary scholars. Some authors believe that “future wars will be fought not to pursue national interest but to kill enemy leaders...or for simple entertainment. Thus the core of Clausewitz’s philosophy of war that states wage wars using armies in pursuit of political objectives will disappear”[16]. Echevaria also gives us other reasons why Clausewitz is not relevant describing how nuclear weapons, terrorism, narcotics and the political and military leaderships have changed during the course of time. These are problems that the Prussian author could not foresee. Van Creveld points the archaic nature of Clausewitz’s ‘Trinitarian conception of theory’. He also argues that “Trinitarian war is not War with a capital W but merely one of the many forms that war has assumed”[17]. General Colin in 1911 had also “considered Clausewitz’s theory to be obsolete for a number of reasons, among them the impact of modern firepower...”[18] General von Kuhn had the same view. Metz on the other hand describes how “he remains an icon at all the US war colleges while his writings are bent, twisted and stretched to explain everything”[19]. Fleming points that “when war turns out according to his timeless theories, Clausewitz told us to expect it. When it turns out otherwise, Clausewitz told us to expect that too”[20]. So we see that although critics oppose Clausewitz’s relevance there are those who by ‘bending’ his words find a relevance to modern warfare.
            Clausewitz’s insights have been applied to contemporary warfare and the biggest example of this is World War I and World War II where we have total war, a theory which was analysed by the Prussian author together with the Real war. These two examples show how the “two opponents aim at the total defeat of the other”[21] encouraging an accumulation of man power and weaponry.
            Case studies and examples from around the globe show that Clausewitz can be applied to warfare in the 20th and 21st centuries. Gardner describes how “in Iraq ‘the Clausewitzian focus on decisive battle and bloodshed’ encouraged American commanders to deploy a large invasion force that sparked an insurgency...The Iraqi quagmire can thus be attributed largely to the embrace of outdated Clausewitzian dictums regarding the necessity of decisive land battles”[22]. Mao Zedong and Vo Nguyen Giap had the Prussian author as their bases when revolting in China and Vietnam respectively. The use of guerrilla campaigns and the eventual transition to conventional warfare are known and identifiable to Clausewitz. Two authors, Stephen Biddle and Jeffrey Friedman, exhibit that “in their recent examination of the 2006 war in Lebanon Hezbollah employed both guerrilla and conventional methods against Israeli forces”[23].  
            Clausewitz is relevant today even as a source of thought. In the 2nd Gulf War the Bush Administration acted having read and having being inspired by ‘On War’. “Critic William Lind quotes Clausewitz to warn that statesmen and commanders must be clear about what sort of war they are fighting”[24]. But as Weinberger suggests, the US forces should think of war as a last alternative, as Clausewitz stated before him. “By definition war is always the last resort”[25].
            Through this essay we can identify that Clausewitz’s insights can be applied to contemporary warfare. ‘On War’ and ‘The Peloponnesian War’ are the two key sources on strategy. Both works are indispensable for comprehending existing and modern wars. The way with which Clausewitz understands war, the theory of trinity, the relationship among Politik and war will continue providing that states, terrorist groups and many more conflict factions have the mentality of pursuing it. Clausewitz’s relevance is important and valid when we take in to account that “the basic philosophy of war used by the US military remains Clausewitzian”[26].




[1] Gaddis John Lewis, ‘A grand Strategy of Transformation’, Foreign Policy, (Nov/Dec 2002)
[2] Metz Steven, ‘A Wake for Clausewitz: Toward a Philosophy of 21st-Century Warfare’, Parameters, (Winter 1994-95),p. 126
[3] Echevaria Antulio, Gray Colin, ‘Clausewitz and “How Has War Changed?”’, Journal Article Excerpt, Parameters, Vol. 35, (2005)
[4] Clausewitz von Carl, On War, (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2008), p. 13
[5] Kaldor Mary, New and Old Wars: Organized Violence in a Global Era, 2nd ed., (Cambridge, Polity Press, 2009), p.17
[6] Herberg-Rothe Andreas, ‘Carl von Clausewitz today- the primacy of politics in war and conflict’, World Security Network Newsletter, (February 21, 2009) p. 1
[7] Clausewitz von Carl, On War, (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2008), p. 28
[8] Herberg-Rothe Andreas, ‘Carl von Clausewitz today- the primacy of politics in war and conflict’, World Security Network Newsletter, (February 21, 2009), p. 4
[9] Kaldor Mary, New and Old Wars: Organized Violence in a Global Era, 2nd ed., (Cambridge, Polity Press, 2009), p.25
[10] Kaldor Mary, New and Old Wars: Organized Violence in a Global Era, 2nd ed., (Cambridge, Polity Press, 2009), p.23
[11]Freedman Lawrence, ‘“War”, a “Think Again”’, Foreign Policy (July-August 2003)
[12] Ricks Thomas E., Fiasco The American Military Adventure in Iraq, (London, Penguin Books, 2007), p. 59
[13] Fleming Bruce, ‘Can Reading Clausewitz Save Us from Future Mistakes?’, Parameters, (Spring 2004), p. 62
[14] Clausewitz von Carl, On War, (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2008), p. 27
[15] Brown Robin, Clausewitz in the age of Al-Jazeera: Rethinking the Military-Media Relationship, (Leeds, Harvard Symposium: Restless Searchlight: The Media and Terrorism, 2002), p. 6
[16] Echevaria Antulio, ‘War and Politics: The Revolution in Military Affairs and the Continued Relevance of Clausewitz’, (Joint Forces Quarterly, Winter 1995-96)
[17] Metz Steven, ‘A Wake for Clausewitz: Toward a Philosophy of 21st-Century Warfare’, Parameters, (Winter 1994-95),p. 129
[18] Heuser Beatrice, “Reading Clausewitz”, (London, Pimlico, 2002), p. 179
[19] Metz Steven, ‘A Wake for Clausewitz: Toward a Philosophy of 21st-Century Warfare’, Parameters, (Winter 1994-95),p. 126
[20] Fleming Bruce, ‘Can Reading Clausewitz Save Us from Future Mistakes?’, Parameters, (Spring 2004), p. 65
[21] Brown Robin, Clausewitz in the age of Al-Jazeera: Rethinking the Military-Media Relationship, (Leeds, Harvard Symposium: Restless Searchlight: The Media and Terrorism, 2002), p. 4
[22] Gardner Nikolas, ‘Resurrecting the “Icon” The Enduring Relevance of Clausewitz’s On War’, Strategic Studies Quarterly, (Spring 2009), p. 121 
[23] Gardner Nikolas, ‘Resurrecting the “Icon” The Enduring Relevance of Clausewitz’s On War’, Strategic Studies Quarterly, (Spring 2009), p. 124 
[24] Fleming Bruce, ‘Can Reading Clausewitz Save Us from Future Mistakes?’, Parameters, (Spring 2004), p. 62
[25] Fleming Bruce, ‘Can Reading Clausewitz Save Us from Future Mistakes?’, Parameters, (Spring 2004), p. 75
[26] Metz Steven, ‘A Wake for Clausewitz: Toward a Philosophy of 21st-Century Warfare’, Parameters, (Winter 1994-95),p. 131

Tuesday, February 7, 2012

The disappearance of the Maldives

Maps of our world have been changing since man wished to sketch out its morphology on a piece of paper. Today, despite having photographic evidence of our world from outer space, this past fact is also the case. The 13th edition of the "Times Comprehensive Altlas of the World" has many alterations, in respect to the previous editions, due to the current climate change, i.e. global warming. 


The Maldives are a complexion of islands located in the Indian Ocean. This country is currently experiencing the effects of climate change, which will result in the disappearance of the Maldives. It is believed, by scientists, that the island nation will be under water within the next 50 years. 


This of course will not only be destructive for the people of the Maldives, but will create enormous problems for the eco-system of the area, a moral and ethical problem in regards to who will accept its population and government and many more. What effects will it have on how society functions today, where global warming is inevitably a negative result?However climate change will not only have a negative effect on the Maldives, but also Tuvalu and Kiribati in the Pacific, Thailand and many more coastal states around the world.